Munich’s building stock has been rapidly expanding over the past decades. Today, analysis shows that over 90% of buildings needed in Munich for the coming years have already been constructed. The city could, therefore, optimise its building stock expansion by, for example, prolonging the lifetime of existing buildings. Retrofitting can also help shape a low-carbon, energy-efficient building stock, along with accelerating the municipality's decarbonisation efforts. For new buildings, the city could embrace more efficient building practices such as low-carbon construction materials and modular, multi-purpose design.