Ensure supply chains support the input of regenerative materials in a sustainable way.
Prioritising secondary material use could cut the material footprint by as much as 44%, while favouring renewable materials could decrease the mass of primary materials used by 38%, cutting greenhouse gas emissions by a massive 123%. Prioritising the use of secondary materials is predicted to create 13,800 jobs in the deconstruction, collection and sorting of construction and demolition waste.
Design for circularity to cut material use, enable cycling at end-of-life and increase durability.
Using more bio-based materials could cut the mass of primary inputs by 81%, while design for cyclability would enable greater secondary material use years down the road. Designing with flexibility and durability in mind could lower buildings' environmental burdens. Design for cyclability could lead to a net decrease in workers for on-site construction of between 15,000 and 37,000.
Ensure that buildings operate in a circular way. This scenario targets the longest part of structures' lifetimes: the use phase.
Increasing insulation will deliver substantial energy savings, while extending buildings' and components' lifetimes through repair and maintenance could cut the volume of materials needed for construction by 2%. Circular renovation and retrofitting provide an opportunity to cut residential construction by 7%. For this scenario, a slight increase can be expected for the employment level: the need for solar panel installation, for example, will create jobs, while increased renovation and retrofitting will create an estimated 880 jobs.
Boost the proportion or materials that are reused at a high value at the end of a buildings’ life, if renovation or adaptive reuse are not possible.
It's expected that both strategies will cause secondary material use to swell. 13,800 jobs could be created in end-of-life activities, matched by an expected increase in jobs for digital roles and storage facilities.
Due to this scenario's tight link with Scenario one's first strategy—Prioritise secondary material use— we can also expect significant cuts to the material footprint.